*NOTE: NMI's Study Group module formatting guidelines specify that students provide the text of each question, followed by a blank line and then their response. Sometimes cutting and pasting from the above pdf version causes formatting issues in your word processing document. If this occurs, please use this Microsoft Word version of the module for easier cutting and pasting.
https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Main_Page - Introduction page to large website, with navigation directions
https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_Stages - Carnegie Collection Embryos from the 1900’s, original studies that established the Carnegie Stages, and brief historical overview of the researchers and their efforts
http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/stage.php?stage=1 - The Virtual Human Embryo, Digitally Reproduced Embryonic Morphology: Multiple views of embryonic development through 56 days, Carnegie Stage 23 (These are studies of preserved embryos. Caution- science is not always easy to look at. Especially in the later stages of gestation the effects of the preservation techniques are apparent, and in my opinion appear ghoulish)
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chapt4-Ectoderm.pdf - Illustrations and text discussing ECTODERM: NEURULATION, NEURAL TUBE, NEURAL CREST
http://www.babycentre.co.uk/c25004461/inside-pregnancy-videos - Inside Pregnancy: videos of simply explained embryology and fetal development, consistent comparisons to the size of various fruits, each video under 5 minutes
http://www.indiana.edu/~anat550/embryo_main/ - Animated embryology development detail by week and system, press PLAY icon to advance each animated segment that accompanies onscreen text (you’ll need to update your Flash player! Flash links provided)
Slide presentation discussing embryology, with illustrations and voice-over.
Chromosomal Development, XX, XY, SRY Gene
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/SRY#conditions - National Library of Medicine, SRY sex determining region Y
https://courses.washington.edu/conj/bess/differentiation/differentiation.htm - Flow charts on sexual differentiation XY and XX, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome XY “disorders of sexual differentiation”
http://www.baby2see.com/gender/internal_genitals.html - Very simple explanation of genetic sex XX or XY, with illustrations
video explaining sex differentiation in computer voice, includes SRY details
white board illustration and explanation of gonadal sex differentiation, explains role of SRY gene and DHT
slides about gonadal sexual differentiation, testosterone, DHT, androgen receptors
2001 Life’s Greatest Miracle, the sequel to Miracle of Life, includes detail of XX, XY, role of SRY gene in sex determination, brain cell development.
Development and Birth
http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Elective-Delivery-Before-39-Weeks - ACOG urges delaying elective induction to 39 weeks to support brain, liver, lung development
http://www.bellybelly.com.au/pregnancy/40-reasons-to-give-baby-40-weeks-of-pregnancy/ - Consumer information about benefits of 40 week gestation for mother and baby, with illustration about brain growth 35-40 weeks
http://www.marchofdimes.org/mission/march-of-dimes-prematurity-campaign.aspx - March of Dimes Prematurity Campaign, and Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait campaign
http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704615504576172291331227676 - Wall Street Journal article about economic impacts of babies born by induction who then face deficits; March of Dimes spokesperson quoted.
Fetal Anomalies, Birth Defects, and Risk
http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/health-info/prenatal-dexamethasone-for-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-first-do-no-harm/ - Ethical? altering fetal development with early prenatal dexamethasone to avert expression of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/facts.html - Centers for Disease Control: Facts about Birth Defects
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs370/en/ - World Health Organization information on congenital anomalies, estimated death rate, long-term disability, chronic illness, discussion about causes and prevention. Congenital anomalies rate compared to other causes of death in 2013
http://www.marchofdimes.org/materials/global-report-on-birth-defects-the-hidden-toll-of-dying-and-disabled-children-executive-summary.pdf - Executive Summary, Global Report on Birth Defects
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/Pages/anomaly-scan-18-19-20-21-weeks-pregnant.aspx - National Health Service, United Kingdom, anomaly scan at 18-21 weeks pregnant, information sheets for parents regarding targeted anomalies and follow-up screening or tests
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-Consumer/#h6 - Folate and folic acid, nutritional effects on health, embryonic development
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Labeling/ucm093307.htm - 2016 new FDA labeling on drugs: The PLLR requires changes to the content and format for information presented in prescription drug labeling in the Physician Labeling Rule (PLR) format to assist health care providers in assessing benefit versus risk and in subsequent counseling of pregnant women and nursing mothers who need to take medication, thus allowing them to make informed and educated decisions for themselves and their children. The PLLR removes pregnancy letter categories – A, B, C, D and X. The PLLR also requires the label to be updated when information becomes outdated. New labeling includes Females and Males of Reproductive Potential.
http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM425398.pdf - Nonbinding draft FDA recommendations for more clearly indicating degrees of fetal risk.
https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/12/04/2014-28241/content-and-format-of-labeling-for-human-prescription-drug-and-biological-products-requirements-for#h-11 - Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescriptive Drug and Biological Products; Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling
https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/terminationpregnancyreport18may2010.pdf - Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormality in England, Scotland, and Wales. Healthcare booklet with information and context of National Health Service resources, interesting cultural perspective from outside the United States.
http://www.earlyabortion.com/abortion-methods/ - Information on early abortion options
http://www.pregnancyoptions.info/whichmethod.htm - Pregnancy Options Workbook, fully online workbook provides detailed guidance for self expression and exploration, including concerns of and about parents and intimate partners and the choices that lie ahead, also resource links
http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/health-info/early-abortion-options/ - Our Bodies, Ourselves approach to providing information about early abortion options
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